Indian states are leading the Green Hydrogen revolution by implementing supportive policies, attracting investments, and developing robust ecosystems to promote the production and usage of Green Hydrogen as a sustainable energy solution.

As countries worldwide strive to mitigate climate change and achieve carbon neutrality, India is setting a bold precedent with its commitment to Green Hydrogen. This article explores how various Indian states are pioneering efforts in the Green Hydrogen revolution, highlighting key policies, advancements, and the potential impact of these initiatives on sustainable development.

Understanding Green Hydrogen landscape in India

 India stands on the cusp of an energy revolution, with Green Hydrogen set to play a crucial role in its sustainable future. Green Hydrogen is created by splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using renewable energy sources such as solar and wind, providing a clean, carbon-neutral substitute for traditional fossil fuels. With an estimated solar potential of about 750 GW and a wind potential of around 302 GW, India possesses abundant renewable resources that serve as a solid foundation for this burgeoning industry. The Thar Desert in Rajasthan, due to its extensive solar capacity, is an ideal site for large-scale solar projects integral to Green Hydrogen production.

According to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), hydrogen could account for up to 12% of global energy consumption by 2050, potentially preventing six gigatonnes of CO2 emissions each year. This shift aligns with international climate objectives and positions India as a leader in the global green energy transition.

Diverse Applications of Hydrogen: A Catalyst for Sustainable Solutions

Hydrogen fuel cells find applications across multiple sectors, offering a versatile and environmentally friendly energy solution. Hydrogen-powered trains, buses, and select passenger vehicles are increasingly prevalent in transportation. Cities like Delhi are testing the use of hydrogen-powered buses to combat urban air pollution. In heavy industries such as steel and cement manufacturing, Green Hydrogen is seen as a cleaner alternative to fossil fuels. For the global steel industry, which contributes 7-9% of direct fossil fuel emissions, Green Hydrogen represents a significant opportunity to reduce environmental impacts. The fertilizer industry also presents a substantial market for Green Hydrogen, traditionally reliant on hydrogen in its production processes.

Hydrogen’s flexibility extends to electricity generation, where it can be used in gas turbines or fuel cells. This adaptability offers utilities transformative potential to decarbonize their energy mixes. Additionally, blending hydrogen with natural gas is reducing carbon emissions from residential and commercial heating systems. This integration illustrates practical solutions to environmental concerns in daily energy usage, demonstrating hydrogen’s broad applicability in transportation, manufacturing, energy production, and heating systems, underpinning its role as a key driver of sustainable solutions.

India’s Ambitious Leap into Green Hydrogen: Unveiling the National Green Hydrogen Mission

Recognizing the significant potential of Green Hydrogen, the Government of India has launched the National Green Hydrogen Mission, allocating Rs 19,700 crore in the 2023 budget. This initiative reflects the government’s commitment to reducing carbon emissions and fossil fuel dependency. The government has set a carbon emission threshold of two kilograms of CO2 per kilogram of hydrogen to qualify as “Green” Hydrogen, fostering clarity and standardization in its production.

With global hydrogen consumption currently around 70 million tons annually, predominantly as grey hydrogen from fossil fuels, India aims to produce 5 million metric tons of Green Hydrogen by 2030. This could save over INR 1 trillion in fossil fuel imports and cut 50 million metric tons of carbon emissions. A $2.3 billion government investment supports this ambition, aiming to enhance India’s renewable energy capacity by 125 gigawatts by 2030.

Meanwhile, other global powers like China, the European Union, and the United States are also heavily investing in Green Hydrogen, with the global market projected to expand twentyfold to $80 billion by 2030. India’s strategy includes advancing efficient hydrogen production technologies, such as improved electrolysis, and supporting research in hydrogen storage and transportation. Furthermore, the government is fostering a supportive regulatory landscape, offering incentives and considering policy relaxations to attract investments and facilitate sector growth.

Maharashtra’s Leadership in Green Hydrogen Development

Maharashtra is emerging as a leader in the development of Green Hydrogen, underpinned by comprehensive policy support and substantial investments. The Maharashtra Green Hydrogen Policy 2023 sets ambitious goals to foster a robust ecosystem for Green Hydrogen and its derivatives such as green ammonia and methanol. This policy, valid until March 2030, aims to attract significant investment by offering incentives like up to 30% capital cost subsidy for specific projects and substantial concessions on transmission charges​.

The state has approved a budget of INR 8,562 crore for the implementation of this policy, focusing on renewable energy and Green Hydrogen projects. This includes funding for skilled manpower recruitment and training, emphasizing skill development to support this growing industry​​.

Gujarat’s Strategic Investments in Hydrogen Ecosystem

Gujarat is positioning itself to become a major hub in the global Green Hydrogen economy. The state has embarked on strategic investments to develop a robust hydrogen ecosystem, highlighted during the Vibrant Gujarat Global Summit 2024, where significant investments were announced. These investments aim to create a comprehensive infrastructure for Green Hydrogen production, including advancements in technology and capacity building for large-scale production​​.

The ambition is to make Gujarat the world’s largest Green Hydrogen hub, with Prime Minister Narendra Modi noting that such initiatives will transform the global energy landscape, shifting towards more sustainable and renewable energy sources. This transformation is expected to bring substantial economic growth to Gujarat, attracting global investors and creating new job opportunities​​.

Also, Advait Infratech is actively contributing to the green hydrogen revolution in Gujarat by setting up a significant facility for the manufacturing and assembly of fuel cells and electrolyzers in Kadi, Mehsana. This initiative, established through a MOU signed at the Vibrant Gujarat Global Summit 2024, represents a crucial step toward sustainable energy solutions in the region​.  

Among other key initiatives, the state has planned sector-specific parks to lower capital and operational costs for industries, aiming to foster a conducive environment for the hydrogen economy. This strategic direction not only emphasizes Gujarat’s leadership in green technologies but also aligns with broader global efforts towards achieving carbon neutrality​​.

Rajasthan’s Renewable Synergy

Rajasthan is strategically investing in a hydrogen ecosystem, leveraging its significant solar energy potential and policy frameworks. The state’s initiatives are aligned with India’s broader goals under the National Green Hydrogen Mission, which targets large-scale Green Hydrogen production using renewable resources. The mission, backed by a substantial financial outlay, aims to establish India as a key player in the global Green Hydrogen market, with ambitious production targets and incentives for electrolyzer manufacturing and Green Hydrogen production​​. This aligns with national policies that encourage renewable energy utilization and aim to reduce the costs associated with Green Hydrogen production, thereby promoting energy independence and economic competitiveness in the energy sector​​.

Karnataka’s Focus on Research and Development

Karnataka is making significant strategic investments to establish itself as a leader in the Green Hydrogen ecosystem. The state is planning to set up India’s first Green Hydrogen cluster in Mangalore, aiming to harness renewable energy sources for hydrogen production. This initiative includes a comprehensive approach to boost solar and wind energy capacities to supply the necessary power for hydrogen production, with several companies showing interest in investing in this sector. Additionally, the Karnataka government is proposing a green energy corridor to enhance the utilization of renewable energies, positioning the state as a key player in the transition to a more sustainable energy future​​.

Green Hydrogen Revolution in other states

In addition to Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Karnataka, other Indian states are also making significant strides in the Green Hydrogen sector. Tamil Nadu, with its extensive wind energy capacity, is exploring partnerships to develop hydrogen production facilities powered by renewable sources. The state aims to leverage its wind farms to create a sustainable hydrogen ecosystem that could transform its energy landscape and industrial sectors.

Similarly, Andhra Pradesh is initiating projects to integrate Green Hydrogen into its energy grid, focusing on decarbonizing public transport and industrial processes. The state’s abundant solar resources provide a strong foundation for establishing a Green Hydrogen production base, aiming to reduce carbon emissions and foster economic growth through green technology.

These efforts across various states highlight a nationwide move towards adopting and innovating in the field of Green Hydrogen, promising a greener, more sustainable future for India’s energy and industrial sectors.

Challenges and Opportunities Ahead

While the progress is promising, the road ahead for Green Hydrogen in India involves several challenges. High production costs, lack of comprehensive infrastructure, and regulatory hurdles are some of the obstacles that need to be addressed. However, the opportunities outweigh these challenges, as Green Hydrogen has the potential to significantly contribute to India’s energy security and economic growth.  

Furthermore, supportive policies at both the state and national level are crucial for the expansion of Green Hydrogen technologies. The Indian government’s Hydrogen Mission aims to scale up production and encourage the use of hydrogen across various sectors, signaling strong commitment and support for this green revolution.


Indian states are actively shaping the Green Hydrogen revolution, each bringing unique contributions to this promising sector. From Maharashtra’s focus on becoming a production hub, Gujarat’s strategic investments linking renewable resources with hydrogen infrastructure, Rajasthan’s export ambitions, to Karnataka’s dedication to research and innovation, these regions are not just steering India towards a sustainable future but are also positioning it as a global leader in Green Hydrogen technology. As Gujarat integrates its extensive renewable energy setups with innovative hydrogen projects, it underscores the synergistic potential of existing assets and new technologies. With more states joining the initiative, the collective efforts could lead India to achieve its ambitious environmental and energy objectives, heralding a new era of eco-friendly innovation and economic growth.

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